有效的詞彙教學在ESL教學中被忽略。 在亞洲,通常通過使用帶有單詞定義的單詞列表以基本方式(很少的教學時間)來教授詞彙教學。

By the time they reach age 15, children who read "a lot" have almost double the vocabulary of children who read "not much."


​到15歲時,讀“很多”的孩子的詞彙量幾乎是讀“不很多”的孩子的詞彙量的兩倍。



The Active Vocabularies of English Language Learners who do not actively study vocabulary and read will not increase very much.

Research proves that the most effective way to increase vocabulary is by reading a lot.  Reading fiction books has a greater effect than reading non-fiction books.

羅伯特的英語閱讀理解研究包括對已發表的大學研究以及教學,測試和觀察學生的深入研究。 這導致他得出的結論是,詞彙不足是導致此問題的主要原因。

“聊天”或隨意的英語對話不會增加一個人的主動詞彙量,因為該人會反複使用與自己熟悉的單詞。

A first observation about the research that has been done about English Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary is that there are two different major categories of English teaching research:  1. English as taught as a first language 2. English as taught as a second language.  There seems to be a “wall” separating the two, almost as if they were two different subjects.

Reading and Vocabulary​ 閱讀和詞彙

Phonics and Word Decoding 拼音和單詞解碼

Words with similar bases usually have similar or related meanings.  Bases have specific "roots,"older words, most often from Latin, Greek, or Germanic Languages.  By teaching the roots of words, it makes it possible to teach groups of words, or "word families."  These are words that have similar or related meanings.  This method of teaching can help students to quickly learn more words and also have some idea of the meaning of new words that may have roots that they know.

Phonics instruction is often poorly understood and poorly administered.  It is not simply assigning a sound to a letter, it is understanding a complex code, an "alphabetic code," in which English's 44 meaningful sounds are represented by approximately 200 different combinations of 26 letters.

拼音教學通常很難理解和管理不善。 這不是簡單地為字母分配聲音,而是理解複雜的代碼,即“字母代碼”,其中英文的44種有意義的聲音由26個字母的大約200種不同的組合表示。

This library is in the process of being catalogued, with links to Book Depository, if you wish to order any of the books.  You can see the BLS Education Library: Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension catalogue by clicking the photo or by clicking here.

例如,說非英語的考生{{例如IELTS考試}}的平均英語詞彙量為4,500個單詞。 根據香港教育局的數據,一名12年級(中六)香港學生的平均詞彙量為3,000個單詞。 相比之下,平均4歲的英語作為母語的考生的詞彙量為5,000個單詞。

Robert Badal has tried many different reading comprehension and vocabulary texts and workbooks with his students.  He has been making a continuous series of videos about these different workbooks and texts.   


​羅伯特·巴達(Robert Badal)與他的學生嘗試了許多不同的閱讀理解,詞彙課本和練習冊。 他一直在製作一系列有關這些不同的工作簿和文本的視頻。

Summary of Research 研究總結

"Chatting" or causal English conversation will not increase a person's Active Vocabulary because the person will keep using the same words over and over again that he or she is comfortable with.

​研究證明,增加詞彙量的最有效方法是大量閱讀。 閱讀小說書籍比閱讀非小說書籍有更大的影響。

Direct Vocabulary Instruction: Best Practice  直接詞彙教學:最佳做法

 

A list of words is necessary as a starting point to a vocabulary instruction lesson -- but it must be followed by a variety of vocabulary exercises and activities that reinforce meaning in different contexts.

Introduction 緒論

Among non-native English speakers, another factor is the degree of social media and/or cell phone use.  Generally, the non-native English speaking countries with the lowest levels of social media use also have more time spent with English reading.  These countries also have higher English vocabularies.


​在非英語母語人士中,另一個因素是社交媒體和/或手機使用的程度。 通常,社交媒體使用率最低的非英語國家(地區)也會花更多時間在英語閱讀上。 這些國家的英語詞彙量也更高。




Increasing one’s vocabulary is not a simple process.  It takes time.  Also, a person’s understanding of a word will change and grow the more often he or she encounters that word.

Ba Lao Shi Perfect English now has one of the largest English reference libraries in Asia.  This library includes test preparation, linguistics, writing instruction, history of the English language, research methods, comparative education, reading comprehension, vocabulary, and science English.


​現在,Ba Lao Shi Perfect English擁有亞洲最大的英語參考圖書館之一。 該圖書館包括有關考試準備,語言學,寫作指導,英語歷史,研究方法,比較教育,閱讀理解,詞彙和科學英語的書籍。

Robert's 之所以專注於閱讀理解,是因為他觀察到,香港英語學生的閱讀理解表現遠低於他們的整體英語水平。

On a basic level, using images and photos, providing usage examples, teaching synonyms and antonyms of a word can clarify the word’s definition.   This is especially effective in early stages of vocabulary instruction that involve simpler words and smaller word lists.  In ESL instruction, this is often accompanied by the teacher saying the word.  The students repeat the word after the teacher has said it.


​從基本的角度來看,使用圖像和照片,提供用法示例,教授單詞的同義詞和反義詞可以闡明單詞的定義。 在ESL教學中,這通常伴隨著老師說出這個單詞。 學生在老師講完單詞後再說一遍。

Every person has two vocabularies, an "Active" Vocabulary and a "Passive" vocabulary.  A person's Active Vocabulary consists of the words that he or she is confident to use in speech and writing.  A person's Passive Vocabulary are the words that he or she may have seen before or even looked up in a dictionary once, but do not fully understand and do not feel confident to use.

​每個人都有兩個詞彙,一個“主動”詞彙和一個“被動”詞彙。 一個人的活動詞彙表包括他或她有信心在演講和寫作中使用的單詞。 一個人的被動詞彙是他或她可能在詞典中曾經看過甚至查過一次的單詞,但是他們沒有完全理解,沒有自信使用。

增加詞彙量不是一個簡單的過程。 這需要時間。 同樣,一個人對單詞的理解會隨著他或她遇到單詞的次數增加而改變和增長。

A word in a person's Passive Vocabulary will not move into a person's Active Vocabulary until the person understands that word to the point where he or she feels confident to use it.  To understand a word you must study it and and use it many times.

However, this method of teaching vocabulary develops problems -- beginning in grade 3 -- as more and more words are introduced.  The complexity of words also steadily increases.

​然而,隨著越來越多的單詞被引入,這種從第三年級開始的詞彙教學方法就產生了問題。 單詞的複雜性也在穩步增加。​​​

The difference in vocabulary size between native English speakers and non-native English speakers is extremely large.


講英語的母語人士和不講英語的母語人士之間的詞彙量差異非常大。

This is called "the Roots Approach" to studying vocabulary.

這被稱為學習詞彙的“the Roots Approach”。


不積極學習詞彙和閱讀的英語學習者的主動詞彙量不會增加太多。

在一個人的被動詞彙表中的單詞不會理解為一個人有信心使用該單詞之前,它不會移入一個人的主動詞彙表中。 要理解一個單詞,您必須學習並使用多次。

詞彙表是詞彙教學課的起點,這是必要的-但隨後必須進行各種詞彙練習和活動,以增強在不同上下文中的含義。

For example, the average English vocabulary of a non-English speaking test taker (such as the IELTS) is 4,500 words.  According the the Hong Kong Education Bureau, the average vocabulary of a Grade 12 (Form 6) HK student is 3,000 words when he or she graduates.  By comparison, the average 4 year-old native English speaker test taker has a vocabulary of 5,000 words.

以英語為第一語言的研究表明,在有效教授詞彙方面存在“最佳實踐”。 這些通常不用於ESL教學中-尤其是在亞洲。

第二個觀察結果是,有關閱讀的研究(尤其是英語作為第一語言的教學)表明,閱讀能力差和詞彙量之間存在明顯的關係。 這與羅伯特·巴達爾(Robert Badal)對香港ESL學生的第一手觀察一致。

Research 研究:

Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension 詞彙和閱讀理解


如果您想訂購任何書籍,該圖書館正在編目中,並提供指向圖書存放處的鏈接。 您可以通過單擊照片或單擊此處查看 BLS 教育圖書館:詞彙和閱讀理解目錄。

Since founding Ba Lao Shi Perfect English in 2014, a focus of Robert Badal's research has been on Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension.


自2014年創辦《 Ba Lao Shi Perfect English》以來,Robert Badal的研究重點一直在詞彙和閱讀理解上。

"Word decoding" is the process of trying to understand a new word. It begins with phonics, "sounding out" the word by syllables.  The next step is to look at the word's parts -- the roots of the word -- to gain an understanding of the probable meaning of the word.

​“單詞解碼”是嘗試理解新單詞的過程。 它從拼音開始,通過音節“讀出”單詞。 下一步是查看單詞的各個部分(單詞的詞根),以了解單詞的含義。


In 2015-2016, Robert began to conceptualize and outline a series of English Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension workbooks.


​羅伯特(Robert)在2015-2016年開始概念化和概述一系列英語詞彙和閱讀理解練習冊。



Robert's focus on Reading Comprehension came as a result of his observation that Hong Kong English student's Reading Comprehension performance was much lower than their overall English level.

English-as-a-first-language research demonstrates that there are "best practices" in how to effectively teach vocabulary.  These are generally not used in ESL instruction -- especially in Asia.

Breaking words down into parts — prefix, base, and suffix — is far more effective than teaching whole words to be memorized a “chunk.”   Each part of a word affects its meaning.  The core meaning of the word is found in the base, while the suffix usually changes the word’s part of speech.  The prefix does not change the word’s part of speech, but rather can negate or change the direction of the meaning -- or it can indicate how much or how many of what is represented by the base.​

Robert's English Reading Comprehension research has included an in-depth study of published university research and teaching, testing, and observing of students.  This led him to the conclusion that poor vocabulary was a major cause of this problem.

具有相似基礎的單詞通常具有相似或相關的含義。 基數有特定的 “ roots,”舊詞,通常來自拉丁語,希臘語或日耳曼語。 通過教授單詞的詞根,可以教授單詞組或“單詞家族”。 這些是具有相似或相關含義的詞。 這種教學方法可以幫助學生快速學習更多單詞,並對新單詞的含義有所了解,這些新單詞可能具有他們知道的 roots。

關於英語閱讀理解和詞彙的研究的第一個觀察結果是,英語教學研究有兩個不同的主要類別:1.英語作為第一語言的教學2.英語作為第二語言的教學。 似乎有一個“牆”將兩者分隔開來,幾乎就像它們是兩個不同的主題一樣。

The second observation is that research about reading — especially in English as a first language instruction — shows a clear relationship between poor reading and poor vocabulary.  This is consistent with Robert Badal’s first hand observation of ESL students in Hong Kong.

​​​​​​​Ba Lao Shi Perfect English

巴老師標準英語​ ​​

Hong Kong's Professional English Instruction  ​

 香港專業英語指導

BLS Education Library: Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension

How To Increase Vocabulary 如何增加詞彙量

​將單詞分解成部分 -- prefix,base,and suffix -- 比將整個單詞記憶為“塊”要有效得多。 單詞的每個部分都會影響其含義。 單詞的核心含義位於 base 中,而 後綴通常會更改單詞的詞性。 prefix 不會改變單詞的詞性,而是可以否定或改變含義的方向-或可以指示 base 代表多少或多少 。​

Effective vocabulary instruction is neglected in ESL teaching.  In Asia, vocabulary instruction is usually taught in a basic way (with little instructional time spent) by using word lists with definitions of words.

Certain specific methods of teaching vocabulary have been proven by research to be most effective.  These are referred to as "best practice."


​某些特定的教學詞彙方法已被研究證明是最有效的。這些被稱為“最佳實踐”。